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Krishna

1. Names and Epithets: – Krishna originates from the Sanskrit word Kṛṣṇa, meaning black, dark, or dark blue. – The waning moon is called Krishna […]

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1. Names and Epithets:
– Krishna originates from the Sanskrit word Kṛṣṇa, meaning black, dark, or dark blue.
– The waning moon is called Krishna Paksha, related to darkening.
– Krishna is the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama.
– Common names for Krishna include Mohan, Govinda, Keev, and Gopala.
– Regional names like Jagannatha hold importance in specific areas.

2. Historical and Literary Sources:
– Krishna’s tradition merges Vāsudeva and Krishna into a single deity.
– The cult of Gopala-Krishna of the Ābhīras influenced the Krishna tradition.
– Krishna started to be identified with Vishnu in the Mahabharata and the Bhagavad Gita around the 4th century CE.
– Early epigraphic sources like the Heliodorus Pillar and Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions mention Krishna-Vasudeva devotion.
– The Chilas II archaeological site in northwest Pakistan depicts Balarama and Krishna, dated to the 1st century CE.

3. Iconography and Symbolism:
– Krishna’s iconography reflects various legends, showing him in different stages of life.
– Depictions include Krishna as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute, and a divine hero.
– Krishna is shown with Radha, surrounded by female devotees, or giving counsel to Arjuna.
– The iconography of Krishna is central to performance arts like Bharatanatyam and Kathakali.
– Krishna is particularly revered in locations like Vrindavan, Dwarka, and Mayapur.

4. Worship and Spread:
– Krishna is worshipped as the eighth avatar of Vishnu and the Supreme God in some sub-traditions like Krishnaism.
– Krishna’s birthday, Krishna Janmashtami, is celebrated by Hindus every year in late August or early September.
– The worship of Krishna spread to the Western world and Africa since the 1960s, influenced by ISKCON.
– Krishna is widely revered among Hindu divinities for protection, compassion, and love.
– Krishna is mentioned in various Hindu texts like the Mahabharata, Bhagavata Purana, and the Bhagavad Gita.

5. Life and Legends:
– Krishna is depicted in various forms across different regions of India.
– Guidelines for creating Krishna icons are outlined in ancient Sanskrit texts.
– Krishna’s iconography is significant in the sculptural art of Bengal temples.
– The narratives of Krishna’s life are detailed in ancient Indian texts like the Mahābhārata.
– Stories of Krishna’s life are celebrated and honored in various festivals throughout India.

Krishna (Wikipedia)

Krishna (/ˈkrɪʃnə/; Sanskrit: कृष्ण, IAST: Kṛṣṇa [ˈkr̩ʂɳɐ]) is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshipped as the eighth avatar of Vishnu and also as the Supreme God in his own right. He is the god of protection, compassion, tenderness, and love; and is widely revered among Hindu divinities. Krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus on Krishna Janmashtami according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar, which falls in late August or early September of the Gregorian calendar.

Krishna
God of Protection, Compassion, Tenderness, and Love, Lord of Yogis
Svayam Bhagavan (Krishnaism-Vaishnavism)
Member of Dashavatara
Statue of Krishna at Sri Mariamman Temple, Singapore
Other namesAchyuta, Damodara, Gopala, Gopinath, Govinda, Keshava, Madhava, Radha Ramana, Vāsudeva
Devanagariकृष्ण
Sanskrit transliterationKṛṣṇa
Affiliation
Abode
Mantra
Weapon
BattlesKurukshetra War (Mahabharata)
DayWednesday
MountGaruda
Texts
GenderMale
Festivals
Personal information
Avatar birthMathura, Surasena (present-day Uttar Pradesh, India)
Avatar endBhalka, Saurashtra (present-day Veraval, Gujarat, India)
Parents
Siblings
Consorts
Children
DynastyYaduvamsha-Chandravamsha
Dashavatara Sequence
PredecessorRama
SuccessorBuddha

The anecdotes and narratives of Krishna's life are generally titled as Krishna Līlā. He is a central figure in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana, the Brahma Vaivarta Purana, and the Bhagavad Gita, and is mentioned in many Hindu philosophical, theological, and mythological texts. They portray him in various perspectives: as a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero, and the universal supreme being. His iconography reflects these legends and shows him in different stages of his life, such as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute, a young boy with Radha or surrounded by female devotees, or a friendly charioteer giving counsel to Arjuna.

The name and synonyms of Krishna have been traced to 1st millennium BCE literature and cults. In some sub-traditions, like Krishnaism, Krishna is worshipped as the Supreme God and Svayam Bhagavan (God Himself). These sub-traditions arose in the context of the medieval era Bhakti movement. Krishna-related literature has inspired numerous performance arts such as Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Odissi, and Manipuri dance. He is a pan-Hindu god, but is particularly revered in some locations, such as Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh, Dwarka and Junagadh in Gujarat; the Jagannatha aspect in Odisha, Mayapur in West Bengal; in the form of Vithoba in Pandharpur, Maharashtra, Shrinathji at Nathdwara in Rajasthan, Udupi Krishna in Karnataka, Parthasarathy in Tamil Nadu and in Aranmula, Kerala, and Guruvayoorappan in Guruvayoor in Kerala. Since the 1960s, the worship of Krishna has also spread to the Western world and to Africa, largely due to the work of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON).


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