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Insomnia

Group 1: Signs and Symptoms of Insomnia – Difficulty falling asleep – Waking during the night – Not able to focus on daily tasks – […]

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Group 1: Signs and Symptoms of Insomnia

– Difficulty falling asleep
– Waking during the night
– Not able to focus on daily tasks
– Daytime sleepiness, irritability, depression
– Feeling tired or having low energy during the day

Group 2: Impact of Poor Sleep Quality

– Restless legs, sleep apnea, major depression can cause poor sleep quality
– Major depression can lead to excessive release of cortisol affecting sleep
– Nocturnal polyuria can result in poor quality of sleep
– Poor sleep quality defined as not reaching stage 3 or delta sleep
– Poor sleep quality has restorative properties

Group 3: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Causes of Insomnia

– Insomnia can be short-term or long-term
– Underlying conditions like ADHD, chronic pain, and heart failure can lead to insomnia
– Sleep study may be done to diagnose underlying sleep disorders
– Primary insomnia can occur without an identifiable cause
– Use of psychoactive drugs like stimulants or sedatives can contribute to insomnia

Group 4: Impact of Digital Media Use on Sleep

– Excessive technology use linked to reduced sleep duration
– Exposure to video games associated with reduced sleep duration
– Internet addiction linked to sleep problems and reduced duration
– Increased screen time during COVID-19 lockdowns negatively affects various sleep parameters
– Adolescents using digital screens excessively experience poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness

Group 5: Treatment and Management of Insomnia

– Cognitive behavioral therapy is the first-line treatment for chronic insomnia
– Medications are mainly used for short-term insomnia
– Non-medication strategies provide long-lasting improvements
– Combination of cognitive behavioral therapy, medications, and lifestyle changes
– Behavioral sleep medicine addresses insomnia with non-pharmacological treatments

Insomnia (Wikipedia)

Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping. They may have difficulty falling asleep, or staying asleep for as long as desired. Insomnia is typically followed by daytime sleepiness, low energy, irritability, and a depressed mood. It may result in an increased risk of accidents of all kinds as well as problems focusing and learning. Insomnia can be short term, lasting for days or weeks, or long term, lasting more than a month. The concept of the word insomnia has two possibilities: insomnia disorder (ID) and insomnia symptoms, and many abstracts of randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews often underreport on which of these two possibilities the word insomnia refers to.

Insomnia
Other namesSleeplessness, trouble sleeping
Depiction of insomnia from the 14th century medical manuscript Tacuinum Sanitatis
Pronunciation
SpecialtyPsychiatry, sleep medicine
SymptomsTrouble sleeping, daytime sleepiness, low energy, irritability, depressed mood
ComplicationsMotor vehicle collisions
CausesUnknown, psychological stress, chronic pain, heart failure, hyperthyroidism, heartburn, restless leg syndrome, others
Diagnostic methodBased on symptoms, sleep study
Differential diagnosisDelayed sleep phase disorder, restless leg syndrome, sleep apnea, psychiatric disorder
TreatmentSleep hygiene, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleeping pills
Frequency~20%

Insomnia can occur independently or as a result of another problem. Conditions that can result in insomnia include ADHD, psychological stress, chronic pain, heart failure, hyperthyroidism, heartburn, restless leg syndrome, menopause, certain medications, and drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. Other risk factors include working night shifts and sleep apnea. Diagnosis is based on sleep habits and an examination to look for underlying causes. A sleep study may be done to look for underlying sleep disorders. Screening may be done with two questions: "do you experience difficulty sleeping?" and "do you have difficulty falling or staying asleep?"

Although their efficacy as first line treatments is not unequivocally established, sleep hygiene and lifestyle changes are typically the first treatment for insomnia. Sleep hygiene includes a consistent bedtime, a quiet and dark room, exposure to sunlight during the day and regular exercise. Cognitive behavioral therapy may be added to this. While sleeping pills may help, they are sometimes associated with injuries, dementia, and addiction. These medications are not recommended for more than four or five weeks. The effectiveness and safety of alternative medicine is unclear.

Between 10% and 30% of adults have insomnia at any given point in time and up to half of people have insomnia in a given year. About 6% of people have insomnia that is not due to another problem and lasts for more than a month. People over the age of 65 are affected more often than younger people. Women are more often affected than men. Descriptions of insomnia occur at least as far back as ancient Greece.

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