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1. History and Key Figures in Hypnosis: – People have been entering hypnotic-type trances for thousands of years. – Modern hypnosis began in the late […]

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1. History and Key Figures in Hypnosis:
– People have been entering hypnotic-type trances for thousands of years.
– Modern hypnosis began in the late 18th century and was popularized by Franz Mesmer.
– Abbé Faria contributed to the scientific study of hypnotism.
– James Braid revealed the biological benefits of hypnotism.

2. Techniques and Applications of Hypnosis:
– Hypnosis involves focused attention, reduced peripheral awareness, and heightened response to suggestion.
– Hypnotherapy is used for therapeutic purposes, while stage hypnosis is for entertainment.
– Hypnosis-based therapies have shown effectiveness in managing certain conditions.
– Hypnosis has been used for managing conditions like irritable bowel syndrome and menopause with supporting evidence.

3. Controversies and Limitations of Hypnosis:
– Use of hypnosis for some issues like smoking cessation has shown mixed results.
– Hypnosis for recalling early trauma is controversial due to the potential formation of false memories.
– Research indicates that hypnosis does not help people recall events more accurately.
– Hypnosis is not universally accepted within the scientific mainstream.

4. Hypnotism vs. Mesmerism and Influence of James Braid:
– Braid emphasized physiological and psychological processes in hypnotism.
– Introduced eye-fixation induction technique and the term Rational Mesmerism.
– Works of James Braid influenced hypnosis abroad, particularly in America and Germany.

5. Development and Evolution of Hypnosis:
– Pierre Janet developed hypnotic psychotherapy based on psychological dissociation.
– Sigmund Freud initially used hypnotherapy before abandoning it in favor of psychoanalysis.
– Émile Coué developed autosuggestion as a psychological technique.
– Clark L. Hull emphasized conditioned reflexes and published the first major compilation of laboratory studies on hypnosis in 1933.

Hypnosis (Wikipedia)

Hypnosis is a human condition involving focused attention (the selective attention/selective inattention hypothesis, SASI), reduced peripheral awareness, and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion.

Jean-Martin Charcot demonstrating hypnosis on a "hysterical" Salpêtrière patient, "Blanche" (Marie Wittman), who is supported by Joseph Babiński
Hypnotic Séance (1887) by Richard Bergh
Photographic Studies in Hypnosis, Abnormal Psychology (1938)

There are competing theories explaining hypnosis and related phenomena. Altered state theories see hypnosis as an altered state of mind or trance, marked by a level of awareness different from the ordinary state of consciousness. In contrast, non-state theories see hypnosis as, variously, a type of placebo effect, a redefinition of an interaction with a therapist or a form of imaginative role enactment.

During hypnosis, a person is said to have heightened focus and concentration and an increased response to suggestions. Hypnosis usually begins with a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions and suggestions. The use of hypnosis for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy", while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as "stage hypnosis", a form of mentalism.

Hypnosis-based therapies for the management of irritable bowel syndrome and menopause are supported by evidence. Use of hypnosis for treatment of other problems has produced mixed results, such as with smoking cessation. The use of hypnosis as a form of therapy to retrieve and integrate early trauma is controversial within the scientific mainstream. Research indicates that hypnotising an individual may aid the formation of false memories, and that hypnosis "does not help people recall events more accurately". Medical hypnosis is often considered pseudoscience or quackery.

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