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Hypersomnia

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Hypersomnia: – Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is the main symptom. – Prolonged nighttime sleep for at least 3 months prior to […]

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Symptoms and Diagnosis of Hypersomnia:
– Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is the main symptom.
– Prolonged nighttime sleep for at least 3 months prior to diagnosis.
– Sleep drunkenness, difficulty transitioning from sleep to wake.
– Associated with irritability, especially before sleeping.
– Hypersomniac patients often take long unrefreshing naps during the day.
– Severity of daytime sleepiness quantified by subjective scales.
– Objective tests like the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) used.
– Complete medical examination and evaluation of potential disorders necessary.
– Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS) is a commonly used subjective measurement.
– Differential diagnosis to determine primary or secondary hypersomnia causes.

Primary and Secondary Hypersomnias:
– True primary hypersomnias include narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia.
– Recurrent hypersomnias like Kleine-Levin syndrome are also primary.
– Genetic disorders like Prader-Willi syndrome may be associated with central hypersomnia.
– Neurological disorders such as brain tumors or stroke lesions can mimic primary hypersomnias.
– Conditions like Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease are frequently linked to primary hypersomnia.
– Numerous causes including clinical depression, multiple sclerosis, and obesity.
– Sleep disorders like sleep apnea can lead to hypersomnia.
– Adverse effects of medications or substance use can cause secondary hypersomnia.
– Physical problems like tumors or head trauma can also be factors.
– Sleep movement disorders like restless legs syndrome can cause secondary hypersomnia.

Assessment Tools for Hypersomnia:
– Polysomnography is an objective sleep assessment method.
– Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) measures sleepiness by sleep latency.
– Actigraphy records sleep and wake cycles by analyzing limb movements.
– The maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) measures the ability to stay awake.
– The Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) are self-report scales measuring different levels of sleepiness.

Impact of Chronic Conditions on Sleep:
– Chronic Kidney Disease: 80% of dialysis patients experience sleep disturbances.
– Cancer: Fatigue and disturbed sleep affect 25-99% of cancer patients.
– Autoimmune Diseases: Lupus and rheumatoid arthritis are often linked to hypersomnia.
– Mood Disorders: Depression, anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder can lead to hypersomnia.

Treatment and Epidemiology of Hypersomnia:
– No cure for chronic hypersomnia.
– Treatments can improve quality of life based on diagnosed causes.
– Behavioral treatments and sleep hygiene are recommended.
– Modafinil is an effective drug for excessive sleepiness.
– Hypersomnia affects 5% to 10% of the general population, with a higher prevalence in men due to sleep apnea syndromes.

Hypersomnia (Wikipedia)

Hypersomnia is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness. It can have many possible causes (such as seasonal affective disorder) and can cause distress and problems with functioning. In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), hypersomnolence, of which there are several subtypes, appears under sleep-wake disorders.

Hypersomnia
Other namesHypersomnolence
SpecialtyPsychiatry, neurology, sleep medicine

Hypersomnia is a pathological state characterized by a lack of alertness during the waking episodes of the day. It is not to be confused with fatigue, which is a normal physiological state. Daytime sleepiness appears most commonly during situations where little interaction is needed.

Since hypersomnia impairs patients' attention levels (wakefulness), quality of life may be impacted as well. This is especially true for people whose jobs request high levels of attention, such as in the healthcare field.

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