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History of neuroscience

Historical Evolution of Neuroscience: – Antiquity: Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, Ancient Egyptian understanding, Alcmaeon’s contributions, Aristotle’s beliefs, Herophilus and Erasistratus’ dissections. – Medieval to early […]

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Historical Evolution of Neuroscience:
– Antiquity: Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, Ancient Egyptian understanding, Alcmaeon’s contributions, Aristotle’s beliefs, Herophilus and Erasistratus’ dissections.
– Medieval to early modern: Islamic medicine focus, Avicenna’s descriptions, European anatomy textbooks.
– Renaissance: Vesalius’ advancements in brain anatomy.
– Scientific Revolution: Descartes’ brain-mind dualism, Willis’ neurologic developments.
– Modern Period: Observations by Galvani, Legallois, Bell, Magendie, Flourens, Matteucci, and du Bois-Reymond.

Key Figures and Discoveries in Neuroscience:
– Contributions by Broca, Fritsch, Hitzig, Jackson, Wernicke, Caton.
– Advancements in localization by Munk, Ferrier, Cushing, Brodmann.
– Notable figures like Pavlov, Bekhterev, Sherrington, Brown, Dale.
– Physiology of nerve impulses: Bernstein’s hypothesis, Sherrington’s law, Loewi’s confirmation of acetylcholine.
– Institute of Higher Nervous Activity in Moscow and significant neuroanatomists.

Neuroscientific Research Advancements:
– Louis Lapicque’s action potential threshold concept.
– Research by Lucas, Adrian, Erlanger, Gasser, Penfield, Cole, Boldrey, and Rasmussen.
– Brain research evolution through philosophical, experimental, and theoretical phases.
– Predictions on brain simulation and the establishment of various neuroscience institutes.
– Notable neurophysiologists and landmark discoveries in neuroscience.

Evolution of Neuroscience Institutions and Ethical Considerations:
– Formation of key institutions like the Institute of Neurology in Vienna and the British Neuroscience Association.
– Initiatives like the International Brain Initiative and the Brain Commission of the International Association of Academies.
– Ethical considerations in neuroscience research and the importance of guidelines.
– Balancing scientific progress with ethical responsibilities and addressing societal implications.
– Transparency and accountability in neuroscience research practices and the role of neuroethics.

Recommended Readings and Future Directions in Neuroscience:
– Books like ‘Nervous Acts’ and ‘A History of the Brain’ for further exploration.
– Literature on neuroscience’s intersection with culture and sensibility.
– Historical perspectives on neuroscience’s evolution from ancient practices to modern research.
– The impact of brain imaging techniques and the mapping of the human genome.
– The future of neuroscience research, including interdisciplinary approaches and the influence of ethical considerations.

History of neuroscience (Wikipedia)

From the ancient Egyptian mummifications to 18th-century scientific research on "globules" and neurons, there is evidence of neuroscience practice throughout the early periods of history. The early civilizations lacked adequate means to obtain knowledge about the human brain. Their assumptions about the inner workings of the mind, therefore, were not accurate. Early views on the function of the brain regarded it to be a form of "cranial stuffing" of sorts. In ancient Egypt, from the late Middle Kingdom onwards, in preparation for mummification, the brain was regularly removed, for it was the heart that was assumed to be the seat of intelligence. According to Herodotus, during the first step of mummification: "The most perfect practice is to extract as much of the brain as possible with an iron hook, and what the hook cannot reach is mixed with drugs." Over the next five thousand years, this view came to be reversed; the brain is now known to be the seat of intelligence, although colloquial variations of the former remain as in "memorizing something by heart".

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