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Francisco Goya

Early Life and Education: – Francisco Goya was born in Fuendetodos, Aragón, Spain, on March 30, 1746. – His father, José Benito de Goya y […]

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Early Life and Education:
– Francisco Goya was born in Fuendetodos, Aragón, Spain, on March 30, 1746.
– His father, José Benito de Goya y Franque, was a gilder specializing in religious craftwork.
– Goya may have attended the Escuelas Pías de San Antón for schooling.
– At age 14, he studied under the painter José Luzán for 4 years.
– Goya moved to Madrid for further studies but later relocated to Rome to study classical antiquity.
– He won second prize in a painting competition in Parma in 1771.
– Goya’s early friendships and influences, like with Martín Zapater and Francisco Bayeu y Subías, shaped his artistic journey.

Career Development and Royal Appointments:
– Goya became a court painter to the Spanish Crown in 1786.
– He painted portraits of the Spanish aristocracy and royalty in his early career.
– Goya created tapestry cartoons and became Director of the Royal Academy in 1795.
– His appointment as the Prime Court Painter in 1799 marked a significant milestone.
– Goya received royal commissions, including portraits of King Charles IV and other notable figures.
– His works evolved to reflect historical events like the Peninsular War and societal issues.

Artistic Style and Evolution:
– Goya’s artistic style transitioned from ideal beauty to naturalism and fantasy.
– Themes of brutality, social alienation, and fantasy became prominent in his works.
– His mental and physical health issues influenced the tone and subject matter of his art.
– Goya’s tapestry cartoons, engravings, and portraits showcased his versatility and critical eye.
– The ‘Black Paintings’ created between 1819-1823 reflect his disillusionment with political and social developments in Spain.

Impact of Historical Events and Personal Struggles:
– Goya’s works during the Peninsular War depicted the atrocities and impact of the conflict.
– ‘The Disasters of War’ series and paintings like ‘The Third of May 1808’ reflected the violence and move against liberalism.
– Goya’s physical and mental health struggles, including deafness and a nervous breakdown, influenced his art.
– The ‘Black Paintings’ executed in solitude at La Quinta del Sordo expressed his alienation and disillusionment.
– Speculation surrounds Goya’s relationship with Leocadia Weiss and his final years in Bordeaux.

Legacy and Influence:
– Goya’s artworks have inspired modern and contemporary artists, composers, and writers.
– Influential figures like Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dalí drew inspiration from Goya’s works.
– His legacy is evident in various art forms, such as music, literature, and visual arts.
– Scholars and critics continue to analyze and discuss Goya’s contributions to art.
– Goya’s impact on art history and his unique depiction of human emotions and societal issues remain subjects of study and appreciation.

Francisco Goya (Wikipedia)

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (/ˈɡɔɪə/; Spanish: [fɾanˈθisko xoˈse ðe ˈɣoʝa i luˈθjentes]; 30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His paintings, drawings, and engravings reflected contemporary historical upheavals and influenced important 19th- and 20th-century painters. Goya is often referred to as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns.

Francisco de Goya
Portrait of Goya by Vicente López (1826), Museo del Prado, Madrid
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes

(1746-03-30)30 March 1746
Died16 April 1828(1828-04-16) (aged 82)
Known forPainting, drawing
Notable workList of paintings and engravings
SpouseJosefa Bayeu (m. 1773)
Yard with Lunatics, c. 1794

Goya was born to a middle-class family in 1746, in Fuendetodos in Aragon. He studied painting from age 14 under José Luzán y Martinez and moved to Madrid to study with Anton Raphael Mengs. He married Josefa Bayeu in 1773. Goya became a court painter to the Spanish Crown in 1786 and this early portion of his career is marked by portraits of the Spanish aristocracy and royalty, and Rococo-style tapestry cartoons designed for the royal palace.

Although Goya's letters and writings survive, little is known about his thoughts. He had a severe and undiagnosed illness in 1793 that left him deaf, after which his work became progressively darker and pessimistic. His later easel and mural paintings, prints and drawings appear to reflect a bleak outlook on personal, social and political levels, and contrast with his social climbing. He was appointed Director of the Royal Academy in 1795, the year Manuel Godoy made an unfavorable treaty with France. In 1799, Goya became Primer Pintor de Cámara (Prime Court Painter), the highest rank for a Spanish court painter. In the late 1790s, commissioned by Godoy, he completed his La maja desnuda, a remarkably daring nude for the time and clearly indebted to Diego Velázquez. In 1800–01, he painted Charles IV of Spain and His Family, also influenced by Velázquez.

In 1807, Napoleon led the French army into the Peninsular War against Spain. Goya remained in Madrid during the war, which seems to have affected him deeply. Although he did not speak his thoughts in public, they can be inferred from his Disasters of War series of prints (although published 35 years after his death) and his 1814 paintings The Second of May 1808 and The Third of May 1808. Other works from his mid-period include the Caprichos and Los Disparates etching series, and a wide variety of paintings concerned with insanity, mental asylums, witches, fantastical creatures and religious and political corruption, all of which suggest that he feared for both his country's fate and his own mental and physical health.

His late period culminates with the Black Paintings of 1819–1823, applied on oil on the plaster walls of his house the Quinta del Sordo (House of the Deaf Man) where, disillusioned by political and social developments in Spain, he lived in near isolation. Goya eventually abandoned Spain in 1824 to retire to the French city of Bordeaux, accompanied by his much younger maid and companion, Leocadia Weiss, who may have been his lover. There he completed his La Tauromaquia series and a number of other works. Following a stroke that left him paralyzed on his right side, Goya died and was buried on 16 April 1828 aged 82.

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