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Group 1: Geography of Europe – Europe is located in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, bordered by the Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and […]

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Group 1: Geography of Europe
– Europe is located in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, bordered by the Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Asia.
– The continent covers about 10.18 million square kilometers, making it the second-smallest continent.
– Europe is politically divided into around fifty sovereign states, with Russia being the largest and most populous.
– The European climate is influenced by warm Atlantic currents, producing temperate climates in most areas.
– Islands like Iceland and Greenland are grouped with their nearest landmass.
– Cyprus, despite its proximity to Asia Minor, is politically considered part of Europe.
– Malta was historically considered part of North-western Africa but is now seen as part of Europe.
– The boundary between Europe and Asia was once defined by rivers, seas, and straits.
– The current eastern boundary of Europe partially follows the Ural and Caucasus Mountains.

Group 2: History of Europe
– Europe’s history includes the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Christian consolidation during the Middle Ages, and the Italian Renaissance.
– The Age of Discovery led to European exploration and colonization of the Americas, Africa, Oceania, and parts of Asia.
– The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain brought significant economic, cultural, and social changes to Europe and the world.
– Both World Wars originated and were fought largely in Europe, impacting global dominance and power dynamics.
– The Cold War era divided Europe along the Iron Curtain, leading to significant geopolitical shifts and the eventual dissolution of the Soviet Union.
– Homo erectus georgicus and Neanderthal man in Europe date back to 150,000 years ago.
– Homo sapiens arrived in Europe around 54,000 years ago.
– European Neolithic period started around 7000 BCE.
– European Bronze Age began around 3200 BCE in Greece.
– The Parthenon in Athens was constructed in 432 BCE.

Group 3: European Union and Integration
– The European Union (EU) is a supranational political entity between a confederation and a federation, based on a system of treaties.
– The EU originated in Western Europe and has expanded eastward since the 1990s.
– Many EU members use the euro as a common currency and participate in the European single market and customs union.
– The Schengen Area within the EU has abolished internal border and immigration controls.
– European integration efforts began in 1948 with the Council of Europe and progressed with the establishment of the European Union.
– The EU represents a majority of European countries and has deepened integration through treaties and agreements.
– The EU has expanded its membership and influence, playing a crucial role in global politics and economics.
– The EU is known for its democratic processes, with regular elections and a significant impact on world affairs.

Group 4: Cultural Development in Europe
– Spread of Neolithic culture from the Balkans along the Danube and the Rhine.
– Development of central European Neolithic cultures transmitting skills in producing copper artifacts.
– Construction of giant megalithic monuments during the Corded Ware cultural horizon.
– Native populations of Europe largely descend from Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, Neolithic Early European Farmers, and Yamnaya Steppe herders.
– Iron Age colonization by Greeks and Phoenicians led to early Mediterranean cities.

Group 5: Ancient Civilizations in Europe
– Greek Civilization:
– Polis was the fundamental political unit of classical Greece.
– Cleisthenes instituted the first democratic system in Athens in 508 BCE.
– Greek contributions include philosophy, humanism, rationalism, history, dramatic verse, and science.
– The Greco-Persian Wars were a pivotal moment in world history.
– The Golden Age of Athens followed, laying foundations for Western civilization.
– Roman Empire:
– Rome left its mark on law, politics, language, engineering, architecture, and government.
– By 200 BCE, Rome had conquered Italy, Greece, Hispania, North Africa, Gaul, and Britannia.
– Augustus proclaimed the Roman Empire in 27 BCE.
– The pax romana brought peace, prosperity, and stability to Europe.
– Christianity was legalized by Constantine I in 313 CE.
– Byzantine Empire:
– Byzantine Empire was a powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe.
– Emperor Justinian I established a legal code and funded the Hagia Sophia.
– Muslim forces made inroads into Roman territories.
– Muslim conquests included Cyprus, Malta, Crete, Sicily, and southern Italy.
– The Reconquista in Iberia took around 800 years.
– Early Middle Ages:
– The Age of Migrations led to invasions and migrations by various tribes.
– Dark Ages saw a decline in written knowledge in Western Europe.
– Byzantine Empire remained.

Europe (Wikipedia)

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and Asia to the east. Europe shares the landmass of Eurasia with Asia, and of Afro-Eurasia with both Asia and Africa. Europe is commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Greater Caucasus, the Black Sea, and the waterway of the Bosporus Strait.

Area10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi) (6th)
Population745,173,774 (2021; 3rd)
Population density72.9/km2 (188/sq mi) (2nd)
GDP (PPP)$33.62 trillion (2022 est; 2nd)
GDP (nominal)$24.02 trillion (2022 est; 3rd)
GDP per capita$34,230 (2022 est; 3rd)
HDIIncrease 0.845
CountriesSovereign (44–50)
De facto (2–5)
DependenciesExternal (5–6)
Internal (3)
LanguagesMost common:
Time zonesUTC−1 to UTC+5
Largest citiesLargest urban areas:
UN M49 code150 – Europe
  • a. ^ Figures include only European portions of transcontinental countries.
  • b. ^ Includes Asian population. Istanbul is a transcontinental city which straddles both Asia and Europe.
  • c. ^ "Europe" as defined by the International Monetary Fund.

Europe covers about 10.18 million km2 (3.93 million sq mi), or 2% of Earth's surface (6.8% of land area), making it the second-smallest continent (using the seven-continent model). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states, of which Russia is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 745 million (about 10% of the world population) in 2021; the third-largest after Asia and Africa. The European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents, such as the Gulf Stream, which produce a temperate climate, tempering winters and summers, on much of the continent. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable producing more continental climates.

European culture consists of a range of national and regional cultures, which form the central roots of the wider Western civilisation, and together commonly reference ancient Greece and ancient Rome, particularly through their Christian successors, as crucial and shared roots. Beginning with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 CE, Christian consolidation of Europe in the wake of the Migration Period marked the European post-classical Middle Ages. The Italian Renaissance, radiating from Florence, spread to the rest of the continent a new humanist interest in art and science which led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery, led by Spain and Portugal, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs with multiple explorations and conquests around the world. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers colonised at various times the Americas, almost all of Africa and Oceania, and the majority of Asia.

The Age of Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars began and were fought to a great extent in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence and competed over dominance in Europe and globally. The resulting Cold War divided Europe along the Iron Curtain, with NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East. This divide ended with the Revolutions of 1989, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which allowed European integration to advance significantly.

European integration is being advanced institutionally since 1948 with the founding of the Council of Europe, and significantly through the realisation of the European Union (EU), which represents today the majority of Europe. The European Union is a supranational political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation and is based on a system of European treaties. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. A majority of its members have adopted a common currency, the euro, and participate in the European single market and a customs union. A large bloc of countries, the Schengen Area, have also abolished internal border and immigration controls. Regular popular elections take place every five years within the EU; they are considered to be the second-largest democratic elections in the world after India's. The EU is the third-largest economy in the world.

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