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Eros

Group 1: Origins and Depiction of Eros – The Greek term ἔρως (éros) means desire and comes from the verbs ἔραμαι (éramai) and ἐρᾶσθαι (erãsthai) […]

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Group 1: Origins and Depiction of Eros

– The Greek term ἔρως (éros) means desire and comes from the verbs ἔραμαι (éramai) and ἐρᾶσθαι (erãsthai) meaning to desire, love.
– The origin of the term is uncertain, with speculations of a Pre-Greek origin by R. S. P. Beekes.
– Eros is depicted in ancient Greek sources in various forms, from a primordial god in cosmogonies to the mischievous son of Aphrodite causing bonds of love.
– A cult of Eros existed in pre-classical Greece but was less significant than that of Aphrodite, with later worship in Thespiae.
– Eros was part of the Erotes, associated with homosexual love and celebrated in festivals like the Erotidia.
– He was known as Klêidouchos, meaning holding the keys to hearts, and Pandemos, common to all people.

Group 2: Mythology of Eros

– In Hesiod’s Theogony, Eros is portrayed as the fourth god to come into existence, involved in the creation of the cosmos.
– Eros was considered the first ruler of the universe and had various epithets like Phanes, Erikepaios, and Dionysus.
– In later myths, Eros was the son of Aphrodite and Ares, depicted with a lyre or bow and arrow.
– Eros was associated with various symbols like dolphins, flutes, roosters, roses, and torches.
– The story of Eros and Psyche is a longstanding folktale in the Greco-Roman world, later written by Apuleius in The Golden Ass.

Group 3: Influence and Symbolism of Eros

– Eros, also known as Cupid in Roman tradition, became a major icon and symbol of Valentine’s Day.
– In art, Eros/Cupid is associated with Putto iconography, influencing figures like Cherubim in Christian art during the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

Group 4: Attributes and Myths Involving Eros

– Eros carries a bow and powerful arrows to induce love or aversion.
– Two kinds of arrows: golden for love and affection, lead for hatred.
– Eros played a role in various mythological events using his arrows.
– Eros is characterized as a powerful entity controlling even immortals.
– Eros could not affect the virgin goddesses due to their vow of purity.
– Other myths involving Eros include interactions with Aphrodite, Apollo, Persephone, and Artemis.

Group 5: Other Aspects and Interpretations of Eros

– Psyche was the deification of the human soul, often portrayed with butterfly wings.
– Eros in Dionysiaca Myths, involving various tragic outcomes due to his influence.
– Eros being compared to bees in ancient poetry and associated with friendship and liberty in certain contexts.
– Additional resources and references for further study on Eros and related topics.

Eros (Wikipedia)

In Greek mythology, Eros (UK: /ˈɪərɒs, ˈɛrɒs/, US: /ˈɛrɒs, ˈɛrs/; Ancient Greek: Ἔρως, lit.'Love, Desire') is the Greek god of love and sex. His Roman counterpart is Cupid ('desire'). In the earliest account, he is a primordial god, while in later accounts he is described as one of the children of Aphrodite and Ares and, with some of his siblings, was one of the Erotes, a group of winged love gods.

Eros
God of love, lust, desire and sex
Primordial god and personification of love
Member of the Erotes
The Eros Farnese, a Pompeiian marble thought to be a copy of the colossal Eros of Thespiae by Praxiteles
Major cult centerThespiae
AbodeMount Olympus
SymbolBow and arrows
Personal information
ParentsNone (Hesiod)
Ares and Aphrodite
SiblingsAnteros, Phobos, Deimos, Harmonia, several paternal half-siblings and several maternal half-siblings (as son of Ares and Aphrodite)
ConsortPsyche
ChildrenHedone
Equivalents
Roman equivalentCupid

He is usually presented as a handsome young man, though in some appearances he is a juvenile boy full of mischief, ever in the company of his mother. In both cases, he is winged and carries his signature bow and arrows, which he uses to make both mortals and immortal gods fall in love, often under the guidance of Aphrodite. His role in myths is mostly complementary, and he often appears in the presence of Aphrodite and the other love gods and often acts as a catalyst for people to fall in love, but has little unique mythology of his own; the most major exception being the myth of Eros and Psyche, the story of how he met and fell in love with his wife.

Eros and his Roman equivalent Cupid, are also known, in art tradition, as a Putto. The Putto's iconography seemed to have, later, influenced the figures known as a Cherub. The Putti (plural of Putto) and the Cherubim can be found throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance in Christian art. This latter iteration of Eros/Cupid became a major icon and symbol of Valentine's Day.

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