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Enteric nervous system

Structure of Enteric Nervous System: – The ENS consists of approximately 500 million neurons. – It is embedded in the gastrointestinal system lining from the […]

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Structure of Enteric Nervous System:
– The ENS consists of approximately 500 million neurons.
– It is embedded in the gastrointestinal system lining from the esophagus to the anus.
– Neurons are organized into myenteric and submucosal plexuses.
– Myenteric plexuses are located between muscular layers, while submucosal plexuses are in the submucosa.
– The ENS is derived from neural crest cells.
– Auerbach’s Plexus:
– Lies between the muscular layers of the gastrointestinal tract.
– Provides motor inputs and receives parasympathetic and sympathetic input.
– Acts as the parasympathetic nucleus of origin for the vagus nerve.
– Submucosal Plexus:
– Located in the submucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract.
– Discovered by German physiologist Georg Meissner.
– Plays a vital role in the innervation of the gastrointestinal wall.

Function of Enteric Nervous System:
– The ENS coordinates reflexes and operates independently of the brain and spinal cord.
– It is a focus of study in neurogastroenterology.
– The ENS has autonomous functions and receives innervation from the autonomic nervous system.
– It can carry out reflexes and act as an integrating center without CNS input.
– The ENS has the capacity to alter responses based on various factors.

Clinical Significance and Neurogastroenterology:
– Neurogastroenterology studies the interactions between the brain and gut.
– Focuses on gastrointestinal motility and functional disorders.
– Examines the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions of the digestive tract.
– Dedicated to managing motility and functional gastrointestinal disorders.
– Addresses motility disorders and gut ischemia.

Motility Disorders and Gut Ischemia:
– Motility disorders are classified by regions like the esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines.
– Clinical research focuses on common disorders like gastroesophageal reflux disease.
– Gut ischemia can damage ENS function.
– Transplantation of the ENS has been a clinical reality in the US since 2011.
– Some hospitals regularly perform ENS transplantations.

Additional Resources and Neurogastroenterology Societies:
– Includes images of myenteric and submucosal plexuses for educational purposes.
– Lists neurogastroenterology societies like the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society.
– Provides references to books, research studies, and guidelines for diagnosing and treating GI disorders.
– Offers related topics in neurogastroenterology research for further exploration.

Enteric nervous system (Wikipedia)

The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the three main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), the other being the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract. It is capable of acting independently of the SNS and PSNS, although it may be influenced by them. The ENS is nicknamed the "second brain". It is derived from neural crest cells.

Enteric nervous system
The enteric nervous system is embedded in the lining of the gastrointestinal system.
Anatomical terminology

The enteric nervous system is capable of operating independently of the brain and spinal cord, but is thought to rely on innervation from the vagus nerve and prevertebral ganglia in healthy subjects. However, studies have shown that the system is operable with a severed vagus nerve. The neurons of the enteric nervous system control the motor functions of the system, in addition to the secretion of gastrointestinal enzymes. These neurons communicate through many neurotransmitters similar to the CNS, including acetylcholine, dopamine, and serotonin. The large presence of serotonin and dopamine in the intestines are key areas of research for neurogastroenterology.

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