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Terminology and Etymology: – The term ’empathogen’ was coined in 1983–84 by Ralph Metzner. – David E. Nichols preferred ‘entactogen’ to avoid negative connotations. – […]

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Terminology and Etymology:
– The term ’empathogen’ was coined in 1983–84 by Ralph Metzner.
– David E. Nichols preferred ‘entactogen’ to avoid negative connotations.
– Nichols found ‘entactogen’ more inclusive of therapeutic uses.
– ‘Entactogen’ is derived from Greek and Latin roots, meaning ‘produce touching within’.
– Both terms, empathogen and entactogen, are essentially interchangeable.

Psychological Effects:
– MDMA induces feelings of empathy, relatedness, and emotional openness.
– MDMA differs from classical psychedelics by providing consistent empathic resonance.
– Effects of MDMA focus on personal connectedness and the ability to feel what others feel.
– LSD-type experiences may have empathic effects, but they are often momentary.
– MDMA stands out for its consistent effects of empathy and sympathy.

Therapeutic Use:
– Entactogens like MDMA are used in psychotherapy for PTSD treatment.
– MDMA helps patients engage with traumatic memories by reducing fear.
– Therapeutic models using entactogens are being revisited for their benefits.
– Entactogens can reduce anxiety, fear response, and avoidance of feelings.
– Concerns exist about potential negative effects and neurotoxicity of MDMA.

References and Sources:
– ‘A dictionary of psychology’ by Andrew M. Colman.
– ‘Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology’ by Iain S. McGregor, et al.
– ‘Ecstasy: the complete guide’ by Julie Holland, et al.
– Journal article by David Nichols on the mechanism of action of MDMA.
– ‘Encyclopedia of emotion’ by Ozer Malamud, et al.
– Research papers by David E. Nichols and colleagues on entactogens.

Substances and Classification:
– Substances like MDPEA and PEA fall under the category of empathogen–entactogen.
– The classification of empathogen–entactogen encompasses a range of psychoactive agents with empathogenic and entactogenic properties.

Empathogen–entactogen (Wikipedia)

Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that induce the production of experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). This class of drug is distinguished from the classes of hallucinogen or psychedelic, and amphetamine or stimulants. Major members of this class include MDMA, MDA, MDEA, MDOH, MBDB, 5-APB, 5-MAPB, 6-APB, 6-MAPB, methylone, mephedrone, GHB, αMT, and αET, MDAI among others. Most entactogens are phenethylamines and amphetamines, although several, such as αMT and αET, are tryptamines. When referring to MDMA and its counterparts, the term MDxx is often used (with the exception of MDPV). Entactogens are sometimes incorrectly referred to as hallucinogens or stimulants, although many entactogens such as ecstasy exhibit psychedelic or stimulant properties as well.

A selection of MDMA pills, which are often nicknamed "Ecstasy" or "E"
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