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Eastern Orthodoxy

Theology: – Eastern Orthodox Christians believe in the Trinity, consisting of three distinct divine persons without overlap or modality. – The Father is eternal and […]

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Theology:
– Eastern Orthodox Christians believe in the Trinity, consisting of three distinct divine persons without overlap or modality.
– The Father is eternal and not begotten, the Son is eternal and begotten of the Father, and the Holy Spirit is eternal and proceeds from the Father.
– The Nicene Creed summarizes Eastern Orthodox doctrine regarding the Trinity.
– Eastern Orthodox Christians adhere to a monotheistic conception of God, transcendent and immanent.
– Eastern Orthodox theology differentiates between God’s eternal essence and his uncreated energies.

History:
– Eastern Orthodoxy is one of the three main branches of Chalcedonian Christianity.
– The mainstream Eastern Orthodox Church is organized into autocephalous churches, with seventeen in the 21st century.
– Autocephalous churches choose their own primate and can have jurisdiction over other churches.
– Many jurisdictions correspond to modern states, like the Patriarchate of Moscow corresponding to Russia.
– The spread of Eastern Orthodoxy began in the eastern Mediterranean Basin within Byzantine Greek culture.

Tradition:
– Eastern Orthodox communities share a common understanding, teaching, and offices, viewing themselves as parts of one Church.
– The liturgical calendar punctuates the year of every Eastern Orthodox Christian.
– Eastern Orthodoxy rejects the Filioque clause added to the Nicene Creed by the Latin Church.
– The Holy Spirit is believed to proceed from the Father in Eastern Orthodoxy.
– The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople’s canonical territory partly lies in northern Greece and the east.

Structure:
– The mainstream Eastern Orthodox Church is organized into autocephalous churches.
– Autocephalous churches can have jurisdiction over other churches, some with autonomous status.
– Jurisdictions can include metropolises, bishoprics, parishes, monasteries, or outlying metochions.
– Territories of autocephalous churches often correspond to modern states.
– Overlapping jurisdictions can occur, such as the case of Moldova with the patriarchs of Bucharest and Moscow.

Spread and Influence:
– The spread of Eastern Orthodoxy began in the eastern Mediterranean Basin within Byzantine Greek culture.
– Eastern Orthodox communities share a sense of unity and belonging to one Church.
– The liturgical calendar structures the year for Eastern Orthodox Christians.
– Eastern Orthodoxy holds that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and rejects the Filioque clause.
– The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople’s canonical territory extends to northern Greece and the east.

Eastern Orthodoxy (Wikipedia)

Eastern Orthodoxy, otherwise known as Eastern Orthodox Christianity or Byzantine Christianity, is one of the three main branches of Chalcedonian Christianity, alongside Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Like the Pentarchy of the first millennium, the mainstream (or "canonical") Eastern Orthodox Church is organised into autocephalous churches independent from each other. In the 21st century, the number of mainstream autocephalous churches is seventeen; there also exist autocephalous churches unrecognized by those mainstream ones. Autocephalous churches choose their own primate. Autocephalous churches can have jurisdiction (authority) over other churches, some of which have the status of "autonomous" which means they have more autonomy than simple eparchies.

Many of these jurisdictions correspond to the territories of one or more modern states; the Patriarchate of Moscow, for example, corresponds to Russia and some of the other post-Soviet states. They can also include metropolises, bishoprics, parishes, monasteries, or outlying metochions corresponding to diasporas that can also be located outside the country where the primate resides (e.g., the case of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople whose canonical territory is located partly in northern Greece and the east); sometimes they overlap (the case of Moldova where the jurisdictions of the patriarchs of Bucharest and of Moscow overlap).

The spread of Eastern Orthodoxy began in the eastern area of the Mediterranean Basin within Byzantine Greek culture. Its communities share an understanding, teaching and offices of great similarity, with a strong sense of seeing each other as parts of one Church. Every Eastern Orthodox Christian sees his or her year punctuated by the liturgical calendar of the church on which they depend. Eastern Orthodoxy holds that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and rejects the Filioque clause ("and the Son") added to the Nicene Creed by the Latin Church, on the grounds that no council was called for the addition.

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