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Development of the nervous system

1. Neural Development Process: – Vertebrate CNS derived from ectoderm – Neural plate forms from neuroectoderm – Neural tube gives rise to brain and spinal […]

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1. Neural Development Process:
– Vertebrate CNS derived from ectoderm
– Neural plate forms from neuroectoderm
– Neural tube gives rise to brain and spinal cord
– Neural stem cells in neural tube drive brain growth
– Birth and differentiation of neurons
– Migration of immature neurons
– Outgrowth of axons and dendrites
– Generation of synapses
– Lifelong changes in synapses for learning and memory

2. Neural Induction and Regionalization:
– Dorsal ectoderm gives rise to epidermis and nervous system
– Neural plate forms from neural ectoderm
– Mesoderm migration leads to notochord development
– Neural tube folds to form neural groove
– Neural inducers like noggin and chordin
– Patterning of the nervous system
– Dorsoventral axis organization
– Rostrocaudal (Anteroposterior) axis development

3. Myelination and Neural Circuit Formation:
– Importance of myelination in brain development
– Myelin sheath insulates nerve impulses
– Myelination crucial for normal brain function
– Regionalization of neural tube
– Activity-dependent mechanisms in assembly of neural circuits
– Neural circuit development
– Neural activity in developing systems

4. Neuronal Migration Mechanisms:
– Tangential Migration
– Axophilic Migration
– Multipolar Migration
– Neural Migration
– Radial glial cells role in neuronal migration
– Two modes of radial migration in cerebral cortex
– GABAergic neurons in the human neocortex

5. Synapse Formation and Connectivity:
– Neurogenesis
– Neurotrophic Factors
– Synapse Formation
– Synapse Elimination
– Brain Mapping and Adult Neurogenesis
– Synaptic Development
– Brain Connectivity

Development of the nervous system (Wikipedia)

The development of the nervous system, or neural development (neurodevelopment), refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryonic development to adulthood. The field of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe and provide insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems develop, from nematodes and fruit flies to mammals.

Defects in neural development can lead to malformations such as holoprosencephaly, and a wide variety of neurological disorders including limb paresis and paralysis, balance and vision disorders, and seizures, and in humans other disorders such as Rett syndrome, Down syndrome and intellectual disability.

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