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Defecation Process: – Defecation is the process of eliminating waste material known as feces from the digestive tract via the anus or cloaca. – Fecal […]

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Defecation Process:
– Defecation is the process of eliminating waste material known as feces from the digestive tract via the anus or cloaca.
– Fecal matter is moved through the digestive tract by waves of muscular contraction known as peristalsis.
– Birds expel urine and urates along with feces.
– Babies pass meconium before consuming external foods.
– Open defecation is still common in some developing countries.

Physiology of Defecation:
– The rectum stores fecal waste before excretion.
– Stretch receptors in the rectal walls stimulate the urge to defecate.
– The anal sphincters control the passage of feces.
– Pressure in the rectum allows fecal matter to enter the anal canal.
– Peristaltic waves push feces out of the rectum.

Health Implications and Medical Conditions:
– Regular bowel movements are crucial for digestive health.
– Constipation can lead to various symptoms and health issues.
– Functional bowel disorders impact daily life.
– Inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis have significant impacts on bowel health.
– Irritable bowel syndrome is a common gastrointestinal disorder.

Bowel Disorders and Diseases:
– Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease symptoms, pharmacotherapies, and ongoing research.
– Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Causes, symptoms, and treatment options.
– Bowel Obstruction: Causes, types, complications, and treatments like surgical interventions and stent placements.
– Valsalva Maneuver Risks: Associated cardiovascular complications and potential dangers.
– Bowel Health and Society: Impact of open defecation on health, sanitation, and societal progress.

Anatomy, Tradition, and Research:
– Anatomy and Physiology of defecation: Role of pelvic floor muscles and causes of fecal incontinence.
– Mythology and Tradition: Cultural practices related to defecation like the ‘caganer’ figurine and stories.
– Complications and Research: Effects of Valsalva maneuver on different body parts, including cerebral infarction and retinal changes.
– Posture and Cultural Practices: Influence of cultural factors on defecation practices and the use of different types of toilets.
– Medical Conditions and Treatments: Comprehensive approach to managing conditions like Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and bowel obstructions.

Defecation (Wikipedia)

Defecation (or defaecation) follows digestion, and is a necessary process by which organisms eliminate a solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material known as feces from the digestive tract via the anus or cloaca. The act has a variety of names ranging from the common, like pooping or crapping, to the technical, e.g. bowel movement, to the obscene (shitting), to the euphemistic ("going for a number two", "dropping a deuce" or "taking a dump"), to the juvenile ("making doo-doo"). The topic, usually avoided in polite company, can become the basis for some potty humor.

Human anatomy of the anorecturm (anus and rectum)

Humans expel feces with a frequency varying from a few times daily to a few times weekly. Waves of muscular contraction (known as peristalsis) in the walls of the colon move fecal matter through the digestive tract towards the rectum. Undigested food may also be expelled within the feces, in a process called egestion. When birds defecate, they also expel urine and urates in the same mass, whereas other animals may also urinate at the same time, but spatially separated. Defecation may also accompany childbirth and death. Babies defecate a unique substance called meconium prior to eating external foods.

There are a number of medical conditions associated with defecation, such as diarrhea and constipation, some of which can be serious. The feces expelled can carry diseases, most often through the contamination of food. E. coli is a particular concern.

Before potty training, human feces are most often collected into a diaper. Thereafter, in many societies people commonly defecate into a toilet. However, open defecation, the practice of defecating outside without using a toilet of any kind, is still widespread in some developing countries. Some people defecate into the ocean. First world countries use sewage treatment plants and/or on-site treatment.

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