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Methods: – Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging assesses macroscale connectomics in the human brain. – dMRI maps white matter tracts. – fMRI series assess blood flow […]

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– Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging assesses macroscale connectomics in the human brain.
– dMRI maps white matter tracts.
– fMRI series assess blood flow correlations between connected gray matter areas.
– dMRI datasets provide information about water molecule diffusion in brain tissue.
– Tractography algorithms reconstruct white matter tracts in the brain.

Macroscale Connectomics:
– Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging are used.
– dMRI datasets span the entire brain.
– dMRI estimates local fiber orientations and generates a model of fiber pathways.
– Tractography algorithms trace likely trajectories of pathways.
– Metrics like fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity quantify white matter properties.

Connectivity Assessment:
– Metrics like fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity assess microstructural properties.
– Connectivity strength can be computed from dMRI data.
– fMRI measures cerebral blood flow as a marker of neuronal activation.
– fMRI offers in vivo information about connectivity between brain areas.
– Resting-state functional connectivity analysis measures connectomes using fMRI.

Functional Connectivity Analysis:
– Resting-state functional connectivity analysis measures connectomes.
– RSFC examines temporal correlation of BOLD signals between brain regions.
– RSFC provides insights into functional connectivity.
– Neuromodulation techniques treat neurological and psychiatric disorders.
– Neuromodulation provides insights into disorders like major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.

Connectomics (Wikipedia)

Connectomics is the production and study of connectomes: comprehensive maps of connections within an organism's nervous system. More generally, it can be thought of as the study of neuronal wiring diagrams with a focus on how structural connectivity, individual synapses, cellular morphology, and cellular ultrastructure contribute to the make up of a network. The nervous system is a network made of billions of connections and these connections are responsible for our thoughts, emotions, actions, memories, function and dysfunction. Therefore, the study of connectomics aims to advance our understanding of mental health and cognition by understanding how cells in the nervous system are connected and communicate. Because these structures are extremely complex, methods within this field use a high-throughput application of functional and structural neural imaging, most commonly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electron microscopy, and histological techniques in order to increase the speed, efficiency, and resolution of these nervous system maps. To date, tens of large scale datasets have been collected spanning the nervous system including the various areas of cortex, cerebellum, the retina, the peripheral nervous system and neuromuscular junctions.

Generally speaking, there are two types of connectomes; macroscale and microscale. Macroscale connectomics refers to using functional and structural MRI data to map out large fiber tracts and functional gray matter areas within the brain in terms of blood flow (functional) and water diffusivity (structural). Microscale connectomics is the mapping of small organisms' complete connectome using microscopy and histology. That is, all connections that exist in their central nervous system.

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