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Historical Development of Coffee: – The word “coffee” entered English in 1582 from Arabic. – Coffee drinking began in the 15th century, initially used by […]

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Historical Development of Coffee:
– The word “coffee” entered English in 1582 from Arabic.
– Coffee drinking began in the 15th century, initially used by Sufi circles.
– Coffee spread from Ethiopia to Yemen and then to Europe, Indonesia, and the Americas.
– The first European coffee house opened in Venice in 1647.
– Coffee became popular in Europe through colonial imports and trade routes.

Economic Impact and Global Production:
– Brazil became the largest coffee producer by 1852.
– Central American countries faced challenges and exploitation during coffee cultivation.
– Over 100 million people rely on coffee as their primary income source.
– Coffee is a vital cash crop for countries like Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, and Ethiopia.
– Coffee consumption in developed countries, especially the US, grew significantly in the 19th century.

Cultivation and Biology of Coffee:
– Coffee is extracted from species like Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora.
– Coffee plants belong to the Rubiaceae family and may grow up to 15ft tall.
– Traditional planting methods involve placing 20 seeds in each hole.
– Brazil leads in global green coffee bean production, with 39% of the total in 2020.
– Coffee is grown within the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn in the bean belt.

Varieties, Processing, and Roasting of Coffee:
– Arabica and robusta are the main coffee species cultivated globally.
– Coffee berries are processed through dry or wet methods.
– Roasting influences taste, aroma, and density of the coffee bean.
– Coffee is graded by color and size, with various categories like light, medium, and dark.
– Decaffeination is done using methods like hot water or solvents.

Environmental Impact and Brewing Techniques:
– Shade-grown coffee provides habitat for animals and insects.
– Various brewing methods like drip coffee makers and espresso machines are popular.
– Coffee should be stored in airtight containers away from moisture, heat, and light.
– Choosing a brewing method depends on flavor and economy.
– Ground beans are mixed with hot water to extract flavor without bitterness.

Coffee (Wikipedia)

Coffee is a beverage brewed from roasted coffee beans. Darkly colored, bitter, and slightly acidic, coffee has a stimulating effect on humans, primarily due to its caffeine content. It has the highest sales in the world market for hot drinks.

TypeUsually hot, can be iced
Country of origin Yemen
Introduced15th century
ColorBlack, dark brown, light brown, beige
FlavorDistinctive, somewhat bitter
IngredientsRoasted coffee beans

The seeds of the Coffea plant's fruits are separated to produce unroasted green coffee beans. The beans are roasted and then ground into fine particles typically steeped in hot water before being filtered out, producing a cup of coffee. It is usually served hot, although chilled or iced coffee is common. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, caffè latte, or already-brewed canned coffee). Sugar, sugar substitutes, milk, and cream are often added to mask the bitter taste or enhance the flavor.

Though coffee is now a global commodity, it has a long history tied closely to food traditions around the Red Sea. The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking as the modern beverage appears in modern-day Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle of the 15th century in Sufi shrines, where coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a manner similar to how it is now prepared for drinking. The coffee beans were procured by the Yemenis from the Ethiopian Highlands via coastal Somali intermediaries, and cultivated in Yemen. By the 16th century, the drink had reached the rest of the Middle East and North Africa, later spreading to Europe.

The two most commonly grown coffee bean types are C. arabica and C. robusta. Coffee plants are cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and Africa. As of 2023, Brazil was the leading grower of coffee beans, producing 35% of the world's total. Green, unroasted coffee is traded as an agricultural commodity. Despite sales of coffee reaching billions of dollars worldwide, farmers producing coffee beans disproportionately live in poverty. Critics of the coffee industry have also pointed to its negative impact on the environment and the clearing of land for coffee-growing and water use. The global coffee industry is massive and worth $495.50 billion as of 2023. Brazil, Vietnam, and Colombia are the top exporters of coffee beans as of 2023.

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