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Chronobiology

Group 1: Basics of Chronobiology – Chronobiology studies variations in timing and duration of biological activity in living organisms. – Biological processes with rhythms occur […]

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Group 1: Basics of Chronobiology
– Chronobiology studies variations in timing and duration of biological activity in living organisms.
– Biological processes with rhythms occur in animals, plants, and microbial organisms.
– The circadian rhythm, including diurnal, nocturnal, or crepuscular patterns, is a key focus in chronobiology.
– Other cycles studied include infradian, ultradian, tidal, lunar rhythms, and gene oscillations.

Group 2: Historical Development
– The circadian cycle was first observed in the 18th century by Jean-Jacques d’Ortous de Mairan.
– Carl Linnaeus designed a flower clock in 1751.
– The 1960 symposium at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory laid the groundwork for chronobiology.
– Patricia DeCoursey invented the phase response curve in 1960.
– Franz Halberg is considered the father of American chronobiology.

Group 3: Role of Melanopsin in Chronobiology
– Melanopsin plays a key role in various photic responses and synchronization of the biological clock.
– Melanopsin is expressed in some Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) and is intrinsically photosensitive.
– Melanopsin cells relay inputs from rods and cones to the brain.
– Melanopsin is crucial for pupillary light reflex and synchronization of the biological clock.

Group 4: Impact of Light Exposure on Behavior
– Irregular light exposure can lead to sleep deprivation and cognitive disruptions.
– Deviant light cycles can induce depression-like symptoms.
– Light exposure affects areas of the brain linked to emotion and memory.
– Antidepressants can mitigate the effects of light-induced mood changes.

Group 5: Effects of ipRGCs on Behavior and Cognitive Functions
– ipRGCs transmit information to brain regions regulating circadian rhythms and sleep.
– Deviant light exposure can lead to depression-like symptoms in mice.
– Light exposure affects learning and memory functions.
– Mice without ipRGCs are not affected by aberrant light cycles.

Chronobiology (Wikipedia)

Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines timing processes, including periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms, such as their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms. These cycles are known as biological rhythms. Chronobiology comes from the ancient Greek χρόνος (chrónos, meaning "time"), and biology, which pertains to the study, or science, of life. The related terms chronomics and chronome have been used in some cases to describe either the molecular mechanisms involved in chronobiological phenomena or the more quantitative aspects of chronobiology, particularly where comparison of cycles between organisms is required.

Overview, including some physiological parameters, of the human circadian rhythm ("biological clock").

Chronobiological studies include but are not limited to comparative anatomy, physiology, genetics, molecular biology and behavior of organisms related to their biological rhythms. Other aspects include epigenetics, development, reproduction, ecology and evolution.

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