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Cellular neuroscience

Neuronal Structure and Function: – Neurons and glial cells are key components of cellular neuroscience. – The human brain has over eighty billion neurons with […]

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Neuronal Structure and Function:
– Neurons and glial cells are key components of cellular neuroscience.
– The human brain has over eighty billion neurons with varying morphology and functions.
– Neurons generate graded and all-or-none action potentials involving Na⁺ and K⁺ ions.
– The Hodgkin–Huxley model explains the ionic basis of action potentials.
– Action potentials involve distinct phases like threshold, rising phase, falling phase, and recovery.
– Neurons communicate through synapses, which can be electrical or chemical.
– Synaptic plasticity alters synaptic connections, impacting learning and memory.

Synaptic Transmission and Neurotransmitters:
– Synapses involve neurotransmitter release, receptor binding, and vesicle storage.
– Receptors in synapses can be ionotropic or metabotropic.
– Neurotransmitters trigger ion influx or second messenger cascades in postsynaptic cells.
– Voltage changes in terminal boutons lead to neurotransmitter release.
– Understanding synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission is crucial for neural communication.

Research and Publications in Cellular Neuroscience:
– Cellular neuroscientists study tissue, cellular, and subcellular anatomy.
– Research areas include synaptic transmission, plasticity, neurogenesis, and ion channels.
– Relevant publications include works by Williams, Herrup, Martin, Wallace, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso.
– Institutes like the University of Oregon and the University of Victoria conduct cellular neuroscience research.

Membrane Currents and Ion Channels:
– Membrane currents and ion channels are essential in cellular neuroscience.
– They play crucial roles in synaptic transmission and are vital for neural communication.
– Regulation of membrane currents and understanding ion channels aids in neurological research.
– Impacts of ion channels on synaptic plasticity are significant in cellular neuroscience.

Impact on Mental Health and Treatment:
– Cellular neuroscience provides insights into mental disorders and contributes to mental health treatment.
– Understanding neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity aids in mental health research.
– Potential applications in treating neurodegenerative diseases stem from cellular neuroscience advancements.

Cellular neuroscience (Wikipedia)

Cellular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience concerned with the study of neurons at a cellular level. This includes morphology and physiological properties of single neurons. Several techniques such as intracellular recording, patch-clamp, and voltage-clamp technique, pharmacology, confocal imaging, molecular biology, two photon laser scanning microscopy and Ca2+ imaging have been used to study activity at the cellular level. Cellular neuroscience examines the various types of neurons, the functions of different neurons, the influence of neurons upon each other, and how neurons work together.

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