Memorial Day Offer

Discover your mystery discount!


Catathrenia Overview: – Etymology: Derived from Greek words kata (below) and threnia (to lament). – Classification: Initially classified as a parasomnia in ICSD-2, now included […]

« Back to Glossary Index

Catathrenia Overview:
– Etymology: Derived from Greek words kata (below) and threnia (to lament).
– Classification: Initially classified as a parasomnia in ICSD-2, now included in respiratory disorders in ICSD-3.
– Signs and Symptoms: Not life-threatening, characterized by deep breaths, slow exhalation with squeaking or groaning sounds.
– Common Characteristics: Short or long vocalizations, consistent sounds during expiration, typically starting in childhood or early adulthood.
– Discrepancies: Variation in sound duration, intensity, onset time, and response to CPAP treatment.

Catathrenia Characteristics:
– Vocal Sounds: Short or long vocalizations with specific letter sounds.
– Onset and Duration: Sounds consistent from night to night, appearing exclusively during expiration.
– Patient Experience: Often unaware of the problem, disturbances reported by bed partners.
– Variability: Sound duration, intensity, onset time, and response to CPAP treatment vary among patients.
– Sleep Stage Occurrence: Catathrenia may occur during REM or NREM sleep.

Catathrenia Cause and Diagnosis:
– Cause: Unknown, debated whether physical or neurological.
– Diagnosis: Classified under ICSD, importance of accurate diagnosis for effective treatment.
– Factors: Predisposing factors and etiology still unidentified, ongoing research needed.
– Differentiation: Distinguishing catathrenia from other sleep disorders crucial for accurate diagnosis.
– Research: Studies on distinguishing features and diagnostic criteria outlined in sleep medicine manuals.

Nocturnal Vocalization and Related Conditions:
– Other Vocalizations: Nocturnal vocalization reported in animals and humans, including patients with Parkinson’s disease.
– Sounds: Groaning, moaning, and other vocalizations during sleep.
– Types: Includes catathrenia, sleep talking, and other nocturnal vocalizations.
– Studies: Multiple research exploring different types of nocturnal vocalization.
– References: Various studies on catathrenia’s acoustic characteristics and its distinction from snoring.

Catathrenia Treatment and Management:
– Therapy: CPAP therapy considered effective, with studies on its efficacy for catathrenia.
– Personalized Plans: Importance of personalized treatment plans for catathrenia management.
– Behavioral Approaches: Behavioral therapy and lifestyle changes may aid in managing catathrenia.
– Multidisciplinary Approach: Recommended for comprehensive catathrenia management.
– Research: Studies on CPAP therapy’s effect on catathrenia and the role of behavioral interventions.

Catathrenia (Wikipedia)

Catathrenia or nocturnal groaning is a sleep-related breathing disorder, consisting of end-inspiratory apnea (breath holding) and expiratory groaning during sleep. It describes a rare condition characterized by monotonous, irregular groans while sleeping. Catathrenia begins with a deep inspiration. The person with catathrenia holds her or his breath against a closed glottis, similar to the Valsalva maneuver. Expiration can be slow and accompanied by sound caused by vibration of the vocal cords or a simple rapid exhalation. Despite a slower breathing rate, no oxygen desaturation usually occurs. The moaning sound is usually not noticed by the person producing the sound, but it can be extremely disturbing to sleep partners. It appears more often during expiration REM sleep than in NREM sleep.

SpecialtyOtorhinolaryngology, sleep medicine, Somnology
Symptomsgroaning or moaning during sleep

Catathrenia is distinct from both somniloquy (sleep talking) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The sound is produced during exhalation, as opposed to snoring, which occurs during inhalation.

« Back to Glossary Index
This site uses cookies to offer you a better browsing experience. By browsing this website, you agree to our use of cookies.