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Medical Uses and Research: – Armodafinil is FDA-approved for treating excessive daytime sleepiness related to obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and shift work disorder. – It […]

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Medical Uses and Research:
– Armodafinil is FDA-approved for treating excessive daytime sleepiness related to obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and shift work disorder.
– It is commonly used off-label for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, and major depressive disorder.
– Repurposed as an adjunctive treatment for bipolar disorder.
– Used as adjunctive treatment for acute depression in bipolar disorder.
– Shown to improve vigilance in air traffic controllers.
– Being studied for effects on cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia.
– Promotes vigilance hours post-dose.
– Investigated for use in repurposed drugs for mania and bipolar depression.

Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics:
– The mechanism of action of Armodafinil is unknown.
– It has wake-promoting actions similar to amphetamine and methylphenidate.
– Binds to the dopamine transporter and inhibits dopamine reuptake.
– Exhibits linear time-independent kinetics.
– Systemic exposure is proportional over the dose range of 50–400mg.
– Absorption is rapid after oral administration.
– Food may delay time to peak concentration and affect pharmacologic action.
– Armodafinil and Modafinil have different pharmacokinetic profiles despite sharing the same half-lives.

Adverse Effects and Abuse Potential:
– Common side effects include headache, dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, and insomnia.
– Possible side effects also include depression, anxiety, hallucinations, euphoria, and anorexia.
– Overdose symptoms include restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, and increased heart rate.
– Serious rashes may develop, requiring immediate medical attention.
– Low abuse potential similar to modafinil.
– Armodafinil can lead to Stevens-Johnson Syndrome in rare cases.

Regulatory Approvals and Guidelines:
– Armodafinil is not directly included as a doping agent in Romania.
– Modafinil is included, as Armodafinil is an enantiomer.
– Simple possession is not criminal but can result in a fine.
– Importing/exporting without a prescription is a criminal offense.
– CDER approvals for Armodafinil.
– Guidelines for air traffic control specialists.
– Poisons Standard by Therapeutic Goods Administration.
– Laws and regulations in Romania regarding possession and distribution.

Market and Commercial Information:
– Launch of generic Nuvigil tablets.
– Reviews and guides on Armodafinil and Waklert.
– Insights into the market and user experiences.
– Pharmaceutical companies producing Armodafinil.
– Information on side effects, interactions, warnings, and dosages of Armodafinil.

Armodafinil (Wikipedia)

Armodafinil (trade name Nuvigil) is the enantiopure compound of the eugeroic modafinil (Provigil). It consists of only the (R)-(−)-enantiomer of the racemic modafinil. Armodafinil is produced by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon Inc. and was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2007. In 2016, the FDA granted Mylan rights for the first generic version of Cephalon's Nuvigil to be marketed in the U.S.

Clinical data
Trade namesNuvigil, others
  • C
Routes of
Oral (tablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
MetabolismLiver, including CYP3A4 and other pathways
Elimination half-life15 hours
ExcretionUrine (as metabolites)
  • (–)-2-[(R)-(diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.207.833 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass273.35 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(C2=CC=CC=C2)[S@](=O)CC(=O)N
  • InChI=1S/C15H15NO2S/c16-14(17)11-19(18)15(12-7-3-1-4-8-12)13-9-5-2-6-10-13/h1-10,15H,11H2,(H2,16,17)/t19-/m1/s1 checkY
 ☒NcheckY (what is this?)  (verify)

Because armodafinil has a longer half-life than modafinil does, it may be more effective at improving wakefulness in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness.

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