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Medical Uses: – Treats ADHD, narcolepsy, and obesity – Prescribed off-label for depression and chronic pain – Long-term use at therapeutic doses improves brain development […]

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Medical Uses:
– Treats ADHD, narcolepsy, and obesity
– Prescribed off-label for depression and chronic pain
– Long-term use at therapeutic doses improves brain development
– Decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function
– Reviews establish safety and effectiveness for ADHD treatment

Cognitive Enhancement:
– Improves cognition, working memory, and attention
– Enhances memory consolidation and recall
– Indirectly activates dopamine and adrenoceptor α
– Enhances inhibitory control and episodic memory
– Known to improve cognitive performance in healthy adults

Physical Effects:
– Causes euphoria, increased wakefulness, and improved cognitive control
– Improves reaction time, fatigue resistance, and muscle strength
– Larger doses may impair cognitive function and induce muscle breakdown
– Addiction risk with heavy recreational use
– Recreational doses carry higher risk of serious side effects

Structural Class:
– Belongs to phenethylamine class
– Parent compound of substituted amphetamines
– Chemically related to bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine
– Related to naturally occurring trace amines in the human body
– Phenethylamine is the parent compound of amphetamine

Treatment Effectiveness:
– Long-term continuous use improves ADHD symptoms
– Reduces risk of developing substance use disorder
– Improves quality of life, academic achievement, and functional outcomes
– Enhances neurotransmitter activity in specific brain systems
– 80% of users see improvements in ADHD symptoms

Amphetamine (Wikipedia)

Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. Amphetamine was discovered as a chemical in 1887 by Lazăr Edeleanu, and then as a drug in the late 1920s. It exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is equal parts of the two enantiomers in their pure amine forms. The term is frequently used informally to refer to any combination of the enantiomers, or to either of them alone. Historically, it has been used to treat nasal congestion and depression. Amphetamine is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use.

INN: Amfetamine
An image of the amphetamine compound
A 3d image of the D-amphetamine compound
Clinical data
Trade namesEvekeo, Adderall, others
Other namesα-methylphenethylamine
License data
Physical: Low Psychological: Moderate
High (varying with dosage and route of administration)
Routes of
Medical: oral, intravenous
Recreational: oral, insufflation, rectal, intravenous, intramuscular
Drug classCNS stimulant, anorectic
ATC code
Physiological data
ReceptorsTAAR1, VMAT2, 5HT1A
MetabolismCYP2D6, DBH, FMO3
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityOral: ~90%
Protein binding20%
MetabolismCYP2D6, DBH, FMO3
Metabolites4-hydroxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetone, benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, phenylacetone
Onset of actionIR dosing: 30–60 minutes
XR dosing: 1.5–2 hours
Elimination half-lifeD-amph: 9–11 hours
L-amph: 11–14 hours
pH-dependent: 7–34 hours
Duration of actionIR dosing: 3–6 hours
XR dosing: 8–12 hours
ExcretionPrimarily renal;
pH-dependent range: 1–75%
  • (RS)-1-phenylpropan-2-amine
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.005.543 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass135.210 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
ChiralityRacemic mixture
Density.936 g/cm3 at 25 °C
Melting point146 °C (295 °F)
Boiling point203 °C (397 °F) at 760 mmHg
  • NC(C)Cc1ccccc1
  • InChI=1S/C9H13N/c1-8(10)7-9-5-3-2-4-6-9/h2-6,8H,7,10H2,1H3 checkY

The first amphetamine pharmaceutical was Benzedrine, a brand which was used to treat a variety of conditions. Currently, pharmaceutical amphetamine is prescribed as racemic amphetamine, Adderall, dextroamphetamine, or the inactive prodrug lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamine increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitter systems.

At therapeutic doses, amphetamine causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in desire for sex, increased wakefulness, and improved cognitive control. It induces physical effects such as improved reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength. Larger doses of amphetamine may impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown. Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to occur from long-term medical use at therapeutic doses. Very high doses can result in psychosis (e.g., delusions and paranoia) which rarely occurs at therapeutic doses even during long-term use. Recreational doses are generally much larger than prescribed therapeutic doses and carry a far greater risk of serious side effects.

Amphetamine belongs to the phenethylamine class. It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine. As a member of the phenethylamine class, amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulators, specifically phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, both of which are produced within the human body. Phenethylamine is the parent compound of amphetamine, while N-methylphenethylamine is a positional isomer of amphetamine that differs only in the placement of the methyl group.

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