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Altered state of consciousness

Definitions and History: – No general definition of an altered state of consciousness – Definitions attempted in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience – Various historical uses […]

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Definitions and History:
– No general definition of an altered state of consciousness
– Definitions attempted in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience
– Various historical uses of altered states by humans
– Early religious and shamanic use of altered states
– Potential influence of mind-altering plants on human evolution
– Evolution of scientific perspective on altered states in the 20th century

Classification and Induction Methods:
– Categorization of ASCs into sleep/dream states and waking consciousness
– Pathological conditions like schizophrenia
– Intended and induced ASCs, reversible neurotransmission fluctuations
– Pharmacological induction methods using psychoactive drugs
– Non-pharmacological methods like meditation, hypnosis, and fasting

Key Figures, Movements, and Significance:
– Contributions of key figures like William James, Abraham Maslow, and Stanislav Grof
– The Good Friday Experiment and spiritual significance in altered states
– Importance of ASC classification in understanding consciousness variations
– Impact of pharmacological substances and non-pharmacological methods on consciousness
– Therapeutic potential and clinical implications of altered states

Pathologies and Neurobiological Models:
– Traumatic experiences, epilepsy, oxygen deficiency, and infections impacting ASCs
– Sleep deprivation and its effects on consciousness
– Neurobiological models like the entropic brain hypothesis and default mode network
– Role of psychedelics in inducing altered states and surprise
– Clinical implications of psychedelics in disrupting maladaptive patterns

Related Concepts and Studies:
– Absorption, delirium, hydrogen narcosis, lucid dreaming, and psychonautics
– Statistics related to dreams, psychosis symptoms, and altered states
– Psychological studies on consciousness, auditory hallucinations, and connected discourse
– Medical research on ego dissolution, facial emotion recognition, and brain injuries
– Neuroscientific studies on the brain action of psychedelics and unified models of consciousness

Altered state of consciousness (Wikipedia)

An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called an altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state. By 1892, the expression was in use in relation to hypnosis, though there is an ongoing debate as to whether hypnosis is to be identified as an ASC according to its modern definition. The next retrievable instance, by Max Mailhouse from his 1904 presentation to conference, however, is unequivocally identified as such, as it was in relation to epilepsy, and is still used today. In academia, the expression was used as early as 1966 by Arnold M. Ludwig and brought into common usage from 1969 by Charles Tart. It describes induced changes in one's mental state, almost always temporary. A synonymous phrase is "altered state of awareness".

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