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Adenosine triphosphate

Group 1: Structure of ATP – ATP consists of adenine attached to ribose – Ribose is attached to a triphosphate group – Adenine and ribose […]

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Group 1: Structure of ATP
– ATP consists of adenine attached to ribose
– Ribose is attached to a triphosphate group
– Adenine and ribose remain unchanged in reactions
– Triphosphate can convert to di- and monophosphate
– Phosphoryl groups are labeled as alpha, beta, and gamma

Group 2: Chemical Properties and Reactivity of ATP
– Salts of ATP are colorless solids
– ATP is stable in pH range 6.8-7.4 in aqueous solutions
– Living cells maintain ATP to ADP ratio far from equilibrium
– P-O-P bonds in ATP are referred to as high-energy bonds
– Hydrolysis of ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate releases energy

Group 3: Production and Functions of ATP
– Intracellular ATP concentration ranges from 1-10μmol per gram of tissue
– ATP production occurs through glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and beta-oxidation
– ATP is essential in various cellular processes like signal transduction and protein synthesis
– ATP is crucial for DNA and RNA synthesis
– ATP plays a significant role in cellular regulation and biochemistry

Group 4: Regulation and Recycling of ATP
– Total ATP quantity in the human body is about 0.1mol/L
– Majority of ATP is recycled from ADP
– Regulation of citric acid cycle is crucial for ATP production
– ATP replenishment by nucleoside diphosphate kinases
– ATP recycling ensures a constant supply for cellular processes

Group 5: ATP in Physiology, Pathology, and Research
– ATP is essential for cellular signaling pathways and brain function
– ATP is involved in DNA and RNA synthesis, as well as protein translation
– ATP plays a role in biochemical evolution and research
– Discovery of ATP in 1929 and its significance in metabolic processes
– Scientific literature and external links related to ATP research, including ATPace and phosphorus discovery

Adenosine triphosphate (Wikipedia)

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide that provides energy to drive and support many processes in living cells, such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, condensate dissolution, and chemical synthesis. Found in all known forms of life, it is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

IUPAC name
Adenosine 5′-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate)
Systematic IUPAC name
O1-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl} tetrahydrogen triphosphate
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.258 Edit this at Wikidata
  • InChI=1S/C10H16N5O13P3/c11-8-5-9(13-2-12-8)15(3-14-5)10-7(17)6(16)4(26-10)1-25-30(21,22)28-31(23,24)27-29(18,19)20/h2-4,6-7,10,16-17H,1H2,(H,21,22)(H,23,24)(H2,11,12,13)(H2,18,19,20)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1 checkY
  • O=P(O)(O)OP(=O)(O)OP(=O)(O)OC[C@H]3O[C@@H](n2cnc1c(ncnc12)N)[C@H](O)[C@@H]3O
  • c1nc(c2c(n1)n(cn2)[C@H]3[C@@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O3)COP(=O)(O)OP(=O)(O)OP(=O)(O)O)O)O)N
Molar mass 507.18 g/mol
Density 1.04 g/cm3 (disodium salt)
Melting point 187 °C (369 °F; 460 K) disodium salt; decomposes
Acidity (pKa) 0.9, 1.4, 3.8, 6.5
UV-vismax) 259 nm
Absorbance ε259 = 15.4 mM−1 cm−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)
A chemical formula
Interactive animation of the structure of ATP

When consumed in a metabolic processes, ATP converts either to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Other processes regenerate ATP. It is also a precursor to DNA and RNA, and is used as a coenzyme. An average human adult processes around 50 kilograms daily.

From the perspective of biochemistry, ATP is classified as a nucleoside triphosphate, which indicates that it consists of three components: a nitrogenous base (adenine), the sugar ribose, and the triphosphate.

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