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Activities of daily living

Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Assistance: – Basic ADLs include bathing, personal hygiene, dressing, toilet hygiene, and functional mobility. – Instrumental ADLs involve tasks […]

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Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Assistance:
– Basic ADLs include bathing, personal hygiene, dressing, toilet hygiene, and functional mobility.
– Instrumental ADLs involve tasks like cleaning, managing money, moving in the community, meal preparation, and shopping.
– Therapy for ADLs includes interventions by occupational therapists and exercises by physical therapists.
– Assistance with ADLs is crucial in nursing and care settings, with benefits for elderly individuals.
– Caretaker requirements emphasize recognizing illness, providing compassionate care, and maintaining a healthy workspace.

Mobility and ADLs Implementation:
– Repositioning patients every two hours prevents pressure ulcers and deep vein thrombosis.
– Techniques like using pillows and friction-reducing sheets aid in moving bedridden patients.
– Proper repositioning helps prevent functional decline in patients.
– Bed baths, toileting techniques, and dressing strategies are detailed for effective ADL implementation.
– Feeding techniques involve patient involvement, respecting preferences, and adapting to individual needs like dysphagia.

Specific ADL Procedures:
– Bathing techniques like bed baths, eye cleaning, and perineal care protocols are outlined.
– Toileting methods for bed-bound patients and dressing strategies for different conditions are discussed.
– Bedpan usage and dressing tips for patients recovering from surgery are included.
– Feeding practices, including involving patients, respecting preferences, and adjusting for specific conditions, are detailed.

Research and Evaluation of ADL Programs:
– The importance of disease-specific ADLs and the need for objective definitions are highlighted.
– Research on the effectiveness of ADL skills programs for various conditions is discussed.
– Comparison of life skills programs with standard care and their impact on mental health issues are analyzed.
– Evaluation tools like the Schwab and England ADL scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning are mentioned.

Resources and Further Reading on ADLs:
– Resources on ADL evaluation, long-term care insurance, and assessments of older individuals’ ADLs are provided.
– Studies on physical function improvements in older adults through exercise are mentioned.
– Various references and publications on ADLs, chronic illness, and long-term care are listed for further reading.

Activities of daily living (Wikipedia)

Activities of daily living (ADLs) is a term used in healthcare to refer to an individual's daily self-care activities. Health professionals often use a person's ability or inability to perform ADLs as a measure of their functional status. The concept of ADLs was originally proposed in the 1950s by Sidney Katz and his team at the Benjamin Rose Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio. Since then, numerous researchers have expanded on the concept of ADLs. For instance, many indexes that assess ADLs now incorporate measures of mobility.

In 1969, Lawton and Brody developed the concept of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) to capture the range of activities that support independent living. These are often utilized in caring for individuals with disabilities, injuries, and the elderly. Younger children often require help from adults to perform ADLs, as they have not yet developed the skills necessary to perform them independently. Aging and disabilities, affecting individuals across different age groups, can significantly alter a person's daily life. Such changes must be carefully managed to maintain health and well-being.

Common activities of daily living (ADLs) include feeding oneself, bathing, dressing, grooming, working, homemaking, and managing personal hygiene after using the toilet. A number of national surveys have collected data on the ADL status of the U.S. population. Although basic definitions of ADLs are established, what specifically constitutes a particular ADL can vary for each individual. Cultural background and education level are among the factors that can influence a person's perception of their functional abilities.

ADLs are categorized into basic self-care tasks (typically learned in infancy) or instrumental tasks generally learned throughout adolescence. A person who cannot perform essential ADLs may have a poorer quality of life or be unsafe in their current living conditions; therefore, they may require the help of other individuals and/or mechanical devices. Examples of mechanical devices to aid in ADLs include electric lifting chairs, bathtub transfer benches and ramps to replace stairs.

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